Course Content
Unit I-Management of Sporting Events
Management of Sporting Events ● Functions of Sports Events Management (Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing & Controlling) ● Various Committees & their Responsibilities (pre; during & post) ● Fixtures and its Procedures – Knock-Out (Bye & Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic)
Unit II-Children & Women in Sports
● Common Postural Deformities - Knock Knee; Bow Legs; Flat Foot; Round Shoulders; Lordosis, Kyphosis, and Scoliosis and their corrective measures ● Special consideration (Menarche & Menstrual Dysfunction) ● Female Athletes Triad (Osteoporosis, Amenorrhea, Eating Disorders)
Unit III-Yoga as Preventive measure for Lifestyle Disease
 Obesity: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Tadasana, Katichakrasana, Pavanmuktasana, Matsayasana, Halasana, Pachimottansana, Ardha – Matsyendrasana, Dhanurasana, Ushtrasana, Suryabedhan pranayama.  Diabetes: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Katichakrasana, Pavanmuktasana,Bhujangasana, Shalabhasana, Dhanurasana, Supta-vajarasana, Paschimottanasana, Ardha-Mastendrasana, Mandukasana, Gomukasana, Yogmudra, Ushtrasana, Kapalabhati.  Asthma: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Tadasana, Urdhwahastottansana, UttanMandukasana, Bhujangasana, Dhanurasana, Ushtrasana, Vakrasana, Kapalbhati, Gomukhasana Matsyaasana, Anuloma-Viloma.  Hypertension: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Tadasana, Katichakransan, Uttanpadasana, Ardha Halasana, Sarala Matyasana, Gomukhasana, UttanMandukasana, Vakrasana, Bhujangasana, Makarasana, Shavasana, Nadishodhanapranayam, Sitlipranayam.
Unit IV-Physical Education & Sports for CWSN (Children with Special Needs – Divyang)
● Organizations promoting Disability Sports (Special Olympics; Paralympics; Deaflympics) ● Advantages of Physical Activities for children with special needs. ● Strategies to make Physical Activities assessable for children with special needs.
Unit V-Sports & Nutrition
● Concept of balance diet and nutrition ● Macro and Micro Nutrients: Food sources & functions ● Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components of Diet
Unit VI-Test & Measurement in Sports
● Fitness Test – SAI Khelo India Fitness Test in school: o Age group 5-8 yrs/ class 1-3: BMI, Flamingo Balance Test, Plate Tapping Test o Age group 9-18yrs/ class 4-12: BMI, 50mt Speed test, 600mt Run/Walk, Sit & Reach flexibility test, Strength Test (Abdominal Partial Curl Up, Push-Ups for boys, Modified Push-Ups for girls). ● Computing Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) ● Rikli & Jones - Senior Citizen Fitness Test I. Chair Stand Test for lower body strength II. Arm Curl Test for upper body strength III. Chair Sit & Reach Test for lower body flexibility IV. Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility V. Eight Foot Up & Go Test for agility VI. Six Minute Walk Test for Aerobic Endurance
Unit VII-Physiology & Injuries in Sports
● Physiological factors determining components of physical fitness ● Effect of exercise on Muscular System ● Effect of exercise on Cardio-Respiratory System ● Sports injuries: Classification (Soft Tissue Injuries -Abrasion, Contusion, Laceration, Incision, Sprain & Strain; Bone & Joint Injuries - Dislocation, Fractures - Green Stick, Comminuted, Transverse Oblique & Impacted)
Unit VIII-Biomechanics & Sports
● Newton’s Law of Motion & its application in sports ● Equilibrium – Dynamic & Static and Centre of Gravity and its application in sports ● Friction & Sports ● Projectile in Sports
Unit IX-Psychology & Sports
● Personality; its definition & types (Jung Classification & Big Five Theory) ● Meaning, Concept & Types of Aggressions in Sports ● Psychological Attributes in Sports – Self Esteem, Mental Imagery, Self Talk, Goal Setting
Unit X-Training in Sports
● Concept of Talent Identification and Talent Development in Sports ● Introduction to Sports Training Cycle – Micro, Meso, Macro Cycle. ● Types & Method to Develop – Strength, Endurance and Speed ● Types & Method to Develop – Flexibility and Coordinative Ability
CBSE Physical Education Class 12
About Lesson

5.1  Balanced Diet

A diet which consist of all the essential food constituents like proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and water in correct proportion.

A balanced diet can be defined as one that includes a variety of foods in amounts and proportions that satisfy the body’s requirements for calories, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients while also leaving room for a small amount of extra nutrients to last through times of deficiency, or times when the body does not get enough of a particular nutrient.

Foods are divided into food groups based on nutrients which are :

  1. Cereals and Millets : Cereals and millets include foods like wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi etc.

Good source of :

  • Majorly provide carbohydrates.
  • Cereals also provide protein (protein quality can be improved by consuming it with pulses),
  • B-vitamins,
  • iron (bajra)
  • calcium (ragi).
  1. Pulses : Pulses include all whole and washed dhals like red gram (lobia), Bengal gram (chana), lentils, green gram (moong) etc.

Good source of :

  • Pulses provide protein (protein quality is improved by combining it with cereals).
  • They are also a fair source of carbohydrates and B-vitamins especially thiamine and niacin.
  • Whole pulses also provide iron and fibre
  • sprouts provide vitamin C.
  1. Milk and Milk Products : This group includes foods like milk, curd, cheese, paneer, khoa etc.

Good source of :

  • The major nutrient it gives is good quality protein
  • Also providing other nutrients like carbohydrates, fat (whole milk), calcium and riboflavin.
  • Milk and milk products are generally sources of all nutrients except iron and vitamin C.
  1. Meat and Meat Products : These include foods like meat, fish, chicken, egg and products made with these.

Good source of :

  • This group is a major source of good quality protein.
  • Other nutrients supplied by this group are B-vitamins, retinol (liver) and calcium (fish).
  • Eggs particularly are good sources of most nutrients.
  1. Nuts and Oil Seeds : Nuts and oil seeds eg., groundnuts, almonds, cashew nuts, til seeds, pistachio etc. are :

Good source of :

  • fat.
  • Protein
  • B-vitamins
  • calcium and other minerals.
  1. Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs) : These include vegetables like mustard (sarson), bathua, fenugreek leaves (methi), spinach (palak).

Good source of :

  • carotene (vitamin A, B-vitamins (especially riboflavin and folic acid),
  • iron (especially sarson and bathua)
  • fibre.
  • calcium, but presence of oxalates in GLVs bind calcium and make most of it unavailable for absorption and utilisation.
  • Fresh GLVs provide vitamin C.
  1. Root Vegetables : These include potato, colocasia, sweet potato, yam etc.

Good source of :

  • Major nutrient supplied by root vegetables is carbohydrate.
  • Carotene is provided only by yellow yam.
  1. Other Vegetables : All other vegetables like brinjal, ladyfinger (okra), beans, cauliflower etc.

Good source of :

  • provide fibre,
  • vitamins,
  • some amount of minerals.
  1. Fruits : Wide variety of fruits is available in the market. Different fruits are sources of different nutrients; hence a combination of various fruits should be included in the balanced diet. Fruits like mangoes, apricots, oranges, papaya are rich in carotene, citrus fruits like orange, mausambi, amla and guavas are

Good source of :

  • vitamin C
  • dried fruits like dates and raisins are rich in iron.
  • Fibre is provided by most fruits.
  1. Sugar and Jaggery : These are simply carbohydrates. Jaggery also has iron.
  2. Fats and Oils : Include ghee, oil, butter etc. are a rich source of fat. Vitamin D also is provided by butter/fortified oils.

Food groups can also be classified according to their functions :

Group 1. Energy giving foods : This category includes foods rich in carbohydrate andfat

  • Cereals and roots and tubers
  • Sugar and jaggery
  • Fats and oils

Group 2. Body building group : this category includes foods rich in protein

  • Milk and milk products
  • Meat and meat products, fish, egg or poultry
  • Pulses
  • Nuts and oilseeds

Group 3. Protective or regulatory foods : This group include foods providingvitamins and minerals

  • Fruits : (a) yellow and orange fruits (mango, papaya)

                           (b) citrus fruits (lemon, orange, mausambi)

                           (c) others (apple, banana etc.)

  • Vegetables : (a) Green leafy vegetables (spinach, mustard, fenugreek etc.)

                           (b) Yellow and orange vegetables (carrot, pumpkin)

                           (c) Others (beans, okra, cauliflower etc.)

                           (d) Root vegetables- potatoes and yam (arvi) are rich in carbohydrates

Why two nutrients should be supplied in correct proportions and adequate amounts?

  • Foods that promote nutrient absorption or hinder nutrient absorption should also be considered.
  • Nutrient imbalance can occasionally prevent effective absorption and use of another nutrient.
  • For example, phosphorus and calcium are both required for the development of bones and teeth.
  • Excess phosphorus in the diet prevents the body from adequately using calcium, affecting bone and tooth development.
  • As a result, these two nutrients must be provided in the proper proportions and quantities.

Nutrition is the science of food and the study of the process that includes everything that happens to food from the time it is consumed until it is used for various functions within the body.

Nutrients : Chemical substances present in food are known to as nutrients.

  • Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water, and fibre are physiologically important nutrients (roughage).
  • Different foods contain these nutrients in varying amounts and proportions, and our bodies require a specific amount of each nutrient for various physiological functions as well as overall growth and development.


5.2   Macro and Micro Nutrients : Food sources and Functions

Nutrients can be broadly classified as macro- and micro-nutrients depending upon their daily requirements by the body.

Macro-nutrients constitute the majority of an individual’s diet. They include fats, proteins, carbohydrates and water. It can be said that they are taken in large amount.


Carbohydrates are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are a major source of energy.

Carbohydrates : Monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Simple sugars (mono and disaccharides) are found in fruits (sucrose, glucose and fructose), milk (lactose) and sweets that are produced commercially and added to foods to sweeten, prevent spoilage, or improve structure and texture.

Polysaccharides are more than two units of monosaccharide joined together. These are starches and fibre (cellulose). These are also called complex sugars and are found in whole grain cereals, rice, oats, potatoes, bread, legumes, corn and flour.

Sources of carbohydrates are : Rice, cereal grains, breads, pasta, milk, fruit, root vegetables, sugar and products that are sweetened like jams, jellies etc., honey, and jaggery.

Fibre is present in whole grain cereals (whole wheat atta), whole pulses, green leafy vegetables, peas, carrot, beans and other vegetables, fruits like guava, apple, orange, pineapple etc.

Role :

  1. Act as major fuel for muscular contraction.
  2. It provides the energy to our body.
  3. It helps to maintain body weight and body temperature of the body         
  4. Important for different digestive operations in our body.
  5. Carbohydrates are essential for the nervous system, brain, and red blood cells.
  6. Carbohydrates are essential for fat metabolism.

Proteins are complex organic nitrogenous compounds. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in varying amounts. Made of polymer chains which include amino-acids.

Sources of Protein are :

  • Plant sources of Protein : Pulses, beans, nuts, oilseeds etc.
  • Animal sources of Protein : Milk, meat, egg, fish etc.

Protein as an essential component of diet : They are basic nutrient in human diet.

Proteins are body building nutrients – building blocks of body tissues.

As a fuel, Protein provides as much energy density as carbohydrate – 4 calories per gram.

Protein has very large molecules, so they cannot be directly absorbed in the blood.

They are used to produce new tissues for growth, tissue repair, regulate and maintain body functions.

Proteins are needed in synthesis of substances like anti-bodies, plasma proteins, hormones, enzymes, hemoglobin etc.

There are nine amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body which are called Essential Amino Acids (EAA). These have to be supplied in the diet.

Role :

  1. It also plays an important role in the physical and mental development of an individual.
  2. Necessary for our growth and development and for repairing the wear and tear of tissues.
  3. It helps in the formation of enzymes and hormones and also act as a source of energy.
  4. Transport oxygen and nutrient.
  5. Regulates balance of water and acid.

The basic nutrient in a weightlifter’s diet is proteins because :

  • Proteins build and repair body cells
  • Proteins form part of various enzymes, hormones, and antibodies    
  • Also provide energy (4 kcal/g)

Good source of proteins are : Milk and milk product, Fish, eggs, poultry, meat, legumes and grains.

5.2.3  FATS (LIPIDS)

What is lipids : Lipids or Dietary Fats is a term used to refer to both oils and fats, which are liquid or solid due to the presence of different types of fatty acids.

Types of fatty acids :

  • Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats and oils.
  • Fatty acids are classified as Saturated or Unsaturated Fats.
  • Show as difference table

Saturated Fats :

  • Saturated fatty acids (SFA) contain no double bonds.
  • When the percentage of saturated fatty acids is higher, the fat is solid at room temperature.
  • Saturated fats which are also called as animal fats
  • Saturated fats are associated with increased health risks, such as increased risk of heart disease.
  • Sources are Desi ghee, butter, cheese, cream, red meats, baked products, and other full-fat dairy products are the main sources of saturated fats.
  • Coconut and palm oils also contain saturated fats.
  • It is recommended that saturated fats be kept to 7% of total calories.

Unsaturated Fats :

  • monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contain one, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contain more than one double bond.
  • when the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA or PUFA) is higher the lipid is liquid at room temperature and is called oil.
  • Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are unsaturated fats that help to reduce blood cholesterol levels and lower the risk of heart disease.
  • Sources of PUFA include vegetable oils, mustard, soybean, corn, safflower and sunflower oils and flaxseed.
  • Canola, olive, peanut, palmolein, rice bran and til (sesame) oils are also rich in monounsaturated fats.

Describe various types of fats. What are the different sources of fats :

  • Fats and oils are important items in the diet of sportsmen.
  • They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • They are composed of fatty acids.
  • Fats are a better source of energy than carbohydrates.
  • Fat can be stored in the body.
  • It is also known as fuel.
  • Energy is produced by their burning process.

Dietary fats are derived from two main sources :

      (a) Vegetable source : They include various edible oils like ground nut, mustard, cotton seed, coconut oil, rape seed, dry fruits, sweet potatoes, whole corn, food grains etc.

      (b) Animal source : They include butter, ghee, lard, fish oil, and certain marine fish oil such as cod-liver oil and sardine oil meat, milk, batter, ghee, eggs, curd, food grains etc.

Functions :

      (a)  Fats improve the palatability of food. They are essential for the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K.

      (b)  Fats are concentrated source of energy.

      (c)  Fats impart firmness to the tissues.

      (d)  Fats protect delicate organs against being injured.

Role : 

  1. It provides heat and energy to the body.
  2. It protects the body from extreme cold and hot climate.
  3. Helps in regulation of body temperature.
  4. It also helps to protect internal organs of the body.
5.2.4  WATER
  • Water is an inorganic compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen that is essential for life.
  • It is a major component of our body and makes up to 60% of the total weight.
  • It is the medium of all body fluids, plays an important role in regulating body temperature, acts as a universal solvent, and is an important lubricant for the joints.

Sources of Water :

  • Our body gets water mainly by ingestion of liquids such as tea, coffee, fruit juices and aerated drinks.
  • It is important to consume clean, safe and wholesome water to avoid water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera.
  • Drinking water

Role : 

  1. Helps in transportation of nutrients to cells of body.
  2. Regulates body temperature.
  3. Vital for various chemical reactions taking place in the body.
  4. Essential for body metabolism.
  5. Keeps the body hydrated.

Importance of fluid intake :

  1. To maintain water balance
  2. Help to transport nutrients throughout the body
  3. Help to remove waste from the body
  4. Sustaining performance, preventing dehydration and avoiding injury.
  5. Maintain blood sugar level and to delay fatigue.
5.2.5  VITAMIN

Vitamins are essential chemicals for our body to function properly, acting as ‘helpers’ by providing protein, fats, and carbohydrates.

Vitamins are divided into two categories :

  1. Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C.
  • The amount of water- soluble vitamins that body doesn’t use passes through the kidneys and leaves the body as urine or stool.
  • The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses, and they are unlikely to reach toxic levels.
  1. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body cells and are not passed out of the body as easily as water soluble vitamins.
  • They are more likely to reach toxic levels if a person takes in too much of these vitamins.

Functions :

  • They are needed for the health of mucous membranes and skin.
  • Play a crucial role in normal vision.
  • Help in digestion and increase appetite
  • Prevent infection and diseases.
  • Needed for formation of hemoglobin.
  • Essential for normal functioning of skin, intestinal tract and nervous system.
  • Help in formation of bones.
  • Needed for normal cell division especially during pregnancy and infancy.
  • Help in Blood clotting and healing of wounds.
  • Protect the cell membrane and act as antioxidant.

Compare Water soluble vitamins on the basis of their sources and benefits :

  1. Thiamine (vitamin B1) :

Functions :

  • Needed for energy metabolism
  • is necessary for nerve function; and
  • is required for DNA and RNA synthesis.

Sources : Whole-grain cereals, pulses, peanuts and seeds, mushrooms, green peas, beans, egg yolk and meat

  1. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) :

Functions :

  • needed for energy metabolism
  • essential for normal eyesight and skin health

Sources : Milk and milk products; animal products like eggs, liver, kidney; green leafy vegetables eg., broccoli; whole-grain cereals; legumes

  1. Niacin (vitamin B3) :

Functions :

  • essential for energy metabolism
  • important for nervous system, digestive system, and skin

Sources : whole-grain cereals, pulses, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables (especially mushrooms). Eggs and milk and milk products lack niacin but are rich sources of EAA- tryptophan which can be converted to niacin in the body when required. 60 mg of tryptophan can be converted to provide 1 mg niacin.

  1. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine)

Functions :

  • Essential for protein and amino acid metabolism, as well as for carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.
  • It also helps in making white blood cells and heme in haemoglobin.

Sources : Meat, Poultry, fish, Nuts, sunflower seeds, pulses, whole grains, spinach, bananas, potatoes.

  1. Biotin :

Functions : Functions as coenzyme in metabolic reactions.

Sources : Widespread in foods like organ meats, such as liver or kidney; egg yolk; nuts, such as almonds, peanuts, and walnuts; soybeans and other legumes; whole grains; bananas; cauliflower, mushrooms; also produced in intestinal tract by bacteria

  1. Pantothenic acid

Functions : Part of co-enzyme A (CoA) needed for energy metabolism.

Sources : Widespread in foods: milk, meat, peanuts, eggs

  1. Folic acid :

Functions :

  • Part of an enzyme needed for making DNA and new cells, especially red blood cells,
  • formation of neurotransmitters
  • needed for maintenance of normal blood pressure and reducing risk of cancer

Sources : Green leafy vegetables particularly spinach, pulses, oranges and orange juice, and liver. Other vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli are also good sources

  1. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) :

Functions :

  • Part of two coenzymes needed for making new cells;
  • important to nerve function

Sources : Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and milk products; not found in plant foods

  1. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) :

Functions :

  • Antioxidant, role in collagen formation hence in wound healing, part of an enzyme needed for protein metabolism;
  • important for immune system, helps in iron absorption

Sources : Found in fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, fresh vegetables in the cabbage family, sprouts, amla and guava

Compare Fat soluble vitamins on the basis of their sources and benefits :

  1. Vitamin A :

Benefits : Night blindness, Xerophthalmia

Functions : 

  • Needed for vision in dim light
  • healthy skin and mucous membranes
  • growth of skeletal and soft tissues
  • immune system health

Sources : papaya, spinach, milk, curd, carrot

  1. Vitamin D :

Benefits : Teeth, bones, calcium

Functions : 

  • Needed for proper absorption of calcium and phosphorus-P
  • deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones

Sources : sunlight, milk, egg yolk

  1. Vitamin E :

Benefits : Fertility, adrenal gland, skin

Functions : 

  • Antioxidant
  • protects cell walls

Sources : fresh fruits, butter, cotton seeds

  1. Vitamin K :

Benefits : Clotting of blood, anemia

Functions : 

  • Needed for proper blood clotting
  • Anemia

Sources : cauliflower, cabbage, spinach


Minerals are inorganic elements that the body requires for a variety of physiological processes.

  1. Minerals that are required in greater quantities are known as macro minerals.
  2. Minerals that are required in lesser quantities are known as micro minerals (trace minerals).


Important Functions



• Needed for proper fluid balance, regulating alkalinity and acidity of body fluids, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction

Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, breads, green leafy vegetables, and unprocessed meats


• Needed for proper fluid balance, stomach acid

Table salt, soya sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, meats, breads, and vegetables


• Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction

Meats,milk, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses


• Important for healthy bones and teeth;

• helps muscles relax and contract;

• important in nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure regulation, immune system health

Milk and milk products; fish with bones (eg., sardines); fortified soya milk; greens (broccoli, mustard leaves); pulses


• Important for healthy bones and teeth; found in every cell;

• part of the system that maintains acid-base balance

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, processed foods


• Found in bones;

• needed for making protein, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, immune system health

Nuts and seeds; pulses; leafy, green vegetables; seafood; chocolate


Found in protein molecules

Occurs in foods as part of protein in meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, pulses, nuts

 Micronutrients : Micro-nutrients are nutrients required in small quantify.

Vitamin and minerals are commonly referred to as micro nutrients because human body requires small amount for survival and proper growth and development .

  1. Vitamins : A, D, E, K, C, B Complex
  2. Minerals : Sodium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Iron
  3. Trace elements : Copper, Iodine, Chromium, Cobalt

Compare any three micro minerals on the basis of their sources and benefits :

  1. Iodine : hormones, growth, goitre, mental retardation (sea foods, salt, fish)
  2. Iron : Anemia, (liver, dry fruits, banana)
  3. Chromium : Insulin, diabetes (soyabean, black gram, barley)
  4. Copper : hemoglobin (egg, pulses, green vegetable)


Important Functions



• Iron is a mineral found in every cell of the body. Iron is considered an essential mineral because it is found in red blood cells as part of haemoglobin that carries oxygen to every cell in the body;

• part of myoglobin needed for muscle contraction,

• needed for energy metabolism, hence crucial in helping perform physical work

Organ meats; red meats; fish; poultry; egg yolks; whole pulses and whole grain cereals; dried fruits; dark green leafy vegetables (mustard greens, bathua); ironenriched breads and cereals; and fortified cereals


• Part of many enzymes needed for synthesizing protein and genetic material;

• has a function in taste perception, wound healing, normal foetal development, production of sperm, normal growth and sexual maturation,

• important for immune system

Meats, fish, poultry, whole grains, vegetables


• Found in thyroid hormone, which helps regulate growth, development, and metabolism

Seafood, foods grown in iodine-rich soil, iodized salt, bread, dairy products


• Antioxidant

Meats, seafood, grains


• Part of many enzymes;

• needed for iron metabolism

Pulses, nuts and seeds, whole grains, organ meats, drinking water


• Part of many enzymes

Widespread in foods, especially plant foods


• Involved in formation of bones and teeth;

• helps prevent tooth decay

Drinking water (either fluoridated or naturally containing fluoride), fish, and most teas


• Works closely with insulin to regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels

Organ meats especially liver, whole grains, nuts, cheese


• Part of some enzymes

Pulses, breads and grains; green leafy vegetables, milk; liver

 Importance of fluid intake :

  1.  To maintain water balance
  2.  Help to transport nutrients throughout the body
  3.  Help to remove waste from the body
  4.  Sustaining performance, preventing dehydration and avoiding injury.
  5.  Maintain blood sugar level and to delay fatigue.

Dietary supplement in heavy dose for longer duration of time is very harmful to our body :

  1. It harms some internal organs, such as the liver, and may result in the accumulation of excess body fat.
  2. It can even result in birth defects.
  3. Excess calcium in the diet for a long period of time may result in kidney stones, vomiting, and headache.
  4. Siderosis is caused by an excess of iron (vomiting and headache)
  5. Prostate cancer can be caused by vitamin E.


5.3   Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Components of Diet

Nutritive components of diet : The food we eat in our balanced diet contains various nutrients which are essential for our body these large number of nutrients are called “Nutritive components”.

For example (i) Carbohydrate, (ii) Fats, (iii) Proteins, (iv) Vitamins, (v) Mineral.


Chemical compounds in foods with no specific nutritional function are called nonnutritive components of foods.

  • Some of these components, such as phytate, act as anti-nutritional factors, whereas others, such as phytochemicals, have a variety of benefits.
  • Some non-nutritional materials are added to food and beverage products to make them smell, taste, last longer, and/or look better.

For example (i) Fibre or Roughage, (ii) Water, (iii) Colour Compounds, (iv) Flavour Compounds, (v) Plant Compounds.


Non-Nutritive Factors (NNFs) or Anti-Nutritional Factors (ANFs) are biological compounds present in human or animal foods that reduce nutrient utilization or food intake, contributing to impaired gastrointestinal and metabolic performance. These include:

  1. Phytates : Phytates are abundant in unrefined cereals and millets. These phytates bind iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium and make these nutrients unavailable for digestion. The phytate content decreases during germination.
  2. Tannins : Tannins are present in legumes, millets such as bajra and ragi, spices, tamarind, tea, turmeric, and certain vegetables and fruits. Tannins hinder iron and protein absorption.
  3. Trypsin Inhibitors : These inhibit the activity of trypsin in the gut, interfering with the digestibility and utilisation of dietary proteins. These are present in soya bean and duck egg white. Heat treatment inactivates trypsin inhibitors
  4. Oxalates : These interfere with calcium absorption and are present in green leafy vegetables and legumes.
  5. Goitrogens : Goitrogens are anti-thyroid substances found in cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, soybean, bajra, peanuts, lentils, and may contribute to iodine deficiency disorders.
  1. Phytochemicals : Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. They are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and other plants and are believed to act as antioxidants and protect cells from damage that could lead to cancer.

Eating more colourful vegetables, fruits, and other plant foods that have certain phytochemicals can reduce the risk of cancer. These phytochemicals include Beta carotene, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, and cruciferous vegetables.

  1. Anthocyanins : Anthocyanins are responsible for the dark colour of grapes, blueberries, cranberries, and raspberries. In the laboratory, they have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties.
  2. Flavonoids or isoflavones : Phytoestrogens are compounds found in vegetables, fruits and grains like soybeans, chickpeas that act like oestrogen, lowering the risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer and symptoms of menopause.
  3. Artificial Sweeteners : Artificial sweeteners are synthetic compounds that duplicate the taste of sugar, but contain less energy. They are often added to diet foods and beverages to maintain the desired taste, but reduce the caloric value. They are regulated and their identifications and concentrations must be determined.
  4. Preservatives : Preservatives are compounds that inhibit microbial growth and are often added to food and beverage products to prolong shelf life. They are regulated and their identification and concentration levels must be determined.
  5. Spices : A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetable substance used for flavouring, colouring or preserving food. It is distinguished from herbs, which are parts of leafy green plants. Spices may have other uses, such as medicinal, religious ritual, cosmetics or perfume production. For example, turmeric roots are also consumed as a vegetable and garlic as an antibiotic.
  6. Coffee : Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the roasted or baked seeds of several species of Coffea. The two most common sources of coffee beans are Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. The seeds are picked, processed and dried before being ground and brewed to create coffee, which has a stimulating effect on humans. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world and can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.


5.4   Healthy Weight

Healthy weight is that body weight which allows an individual to lead a healthy life without any risk of diseases. The healthy weight is known with the use of height and weight chart or calculates the BMI using the height, weight data.

Method to control ‘Healthy Body Weight’ :

  1. Set appropriate goal which includes eat on time and having nourished meals that helps to achieve healthy body weight.
  2. Monitor the calorie intake and make sure to balance the nutrient and non-nutrient content of your meals.
  3. Health is more important than weight loss because improving fitness is at least as effective as losing weight in preventing obesity-related cardiovascular disease.
  4. Healthy lifestyle includes good nutrition, daily exercise and adequate sleep. A healthy lifestyle keeps you fit, energetic and at reduced risk for disease.
  5. Regular physical exercise such as walking, cycling, wheeling, doing sports or active recreation, provides significant benefits for health
  6. Pranayama is the practice of breath regulation. It’s a main component of yoga, an exercise for physical and mental wellness.
  7. Balance diet : A diet which consist of all the essential food constituents like proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and water in correct proportion.
  8. Avoid skipping meals and eat smaller, frequent meals throughout the day.

Body Mass Index (BMI) :

  • The Body Mass Index (BMI) Quetelet’s Index is a key index for relating weight to height.
  • It is derived by taking a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters squared.
  • BMI is used to define normal weight, overweight, and obesity rather than the traditional height/weight charts.
  • BMI of 30 or more for either gender indicates obesity, but does not measure how much fat mass or muscle mass is there.
  • It is less accurate in people such as body builders and pregnant women.



< 18.5


18.5 – 24.9

Normal weight

25.0 – 29.9


30.0 – 34.9

Grade I obesity

35.0 – 39.9

Grade II obesity

> 40.0

Grade III obesity

Intra-abdominal or visceral fat :

  • Intra-abdominal or visceral fat has a strong correlation with cardiovascular disease, and women with abdominal obesity have a cardiovascular risk similar to that of men.
  • This can be evaluated by measuring waist circumference or calculating waist to hip ratio.
  • A waist circumference of >102 cm (>40 inches) in men and >88 cm (>35 inches) in women or the waist-hip ratio (the circumference of the waist divided by that of the hips of >1.0 for men and >0.85 for women) are used to define central obesity.
  • Body fat percentage is total body fat expressed as a percentage of total body weight that can be assessed by methods like skinfold measurements, bioelectrical impedance, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) etc.
  • Most researchers have used >25% in men, and >32% in women, as cut-points to define obesity and higher health risks.

Modifications in the diet to be made :

  1. Diet should consist of foods from all food groups including, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables.
  2. High-fibre foods are higher in volume and take longer to digest, which makes them filling. High-fibre foods include:
  • Fruits and vegetables : Eat whole fruits, salads, and green leafy vegetables of all kinds. Soups and salads can be liberally eaten. The high water and fibre content in most fresh fruits and vegetables makes them hard to overeat. Eat vegetables raw or steamed, not fried or breaded.
  • Beans : Select beans of any kind. Add them to soups, salads, and meals.
  • Whole grains : High-fibre cereals, oatmeal, brown rice, whole-wheat pasta, whole-wheat or multigrain bread.
  1. Add nuts to the daily diet but only in moderation.
  2. Switch to fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. Use low-fat milk in place of cream thereby reducing the overall caloric intake of the day.
  3. Baking or grilling foods rather than frying them reduces the calorie count of foods
  4. Limit intake of high sugar foods like jams, jellies, sweetened curd etc.
  5. Cut on high cholesterol and saturated fat foods like mixtures, mathris, namkeens and bakery products. Instead choose on high fibre biscuits, or khakhra type snacks.
  6. Eat low-fat proteins like egg whites, fish, lean meats, nuts, and poultry.
  7. Serving smaller portions is an easy way to control portion size by using small plates, bowls, and cups. Don’t eat out of large bowls or directly from the food container or package, and use smaller utensils like a teaspoon instead of a tablespoon to slow eating and help feel full sooner.
  8. Cooking meals at home allows for control of portion size and calories, while restaurant and packaged foods contain more sodium, sugar, fat and calories.
  9. Avoid consuming high salt foods like pickles, papad etc. as these foods induce water retention.
  10. Be especially careful to avoid high-calorie snacks and convenience foods.
  11. Soft drinks are a major source of calories in many people’s diets, with one can containing between 10-12 teaspoons of sugar and 150 calories. Instead, homemade lemon water, coconut water, lassi or chachh are better replacements.
  12. Reduce daily calorie intake by replacing soda, alcohol, or coffee with water. Thirst can also be confused with hunger, so by drinking water, one can avoid consuming extra calories.
  13. Eating frequently throughout the day (three small meals and two or three snacks) will boost metabolism. Meal skipping (including breakfast) can lower metabolism. Skipping meals usually leads to overeating at the end of the day.

Dieting : Dieting means restricting to small amount of food intake or having special kind of food in order to lose/gain or maintain weight.

Pitfalls of dieting : Many fat people in the world start dieting to lose their weight which is not a good thing to do. Dieting causes a lot of problems and your physique can become even worse than before. Some of the common pitfalls of dieting are :

  • Extreme reduction of calories
  • Restriction on some nutrients
  • Skipping meals
  • Intake calories through beverages
  • Underestimating the calories
  • Intake of labelled food                                                                 

(aIntake of important nutrients in limit : Insufficient intake of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and fat creates many health problems.

(b)  Attitude to lose weight can lead to serious health problems.

(cStarvation : It is misconception that skipping of any meal can reduce weight but it can create any health problem.

(dStress : Over consciousness of losing weight creates anxiety and stress.

(e)  Reducing of calories can leads to enervation or fatigue.

Harmful effects of dieting :

  • The body’s reaction to dieting is different, as it adjusts its metabolism to reduce calorie intake.
  • Eating very little calories for a long time can lead to starvation mode, as the body slows down metabolic processes to protect itself from long periods without food.
  • This causes the body to drastically cut its energy requirements and the person stops losing weight.

What happens when stop dieting :

Once we start eating normally, we will gain weight until our metabolism bounces back. Special shakes, meals, and programmes are expensive and not practical for long-term weight loss.


Food intolerance means the individual element of certain food that cannot be properly processed and absorbed by the digestive system.

Or  Food intolerance means elements of food cannot be properly processed and absorbed by our digestive system.

Or  A sensitivity, or an inability to digest a particular food ingredient or substance is called food intolerance.

Or  A sensitivity to, or an inability to digest, a particular food, ingredient or substance, which means that it should be excluded from the diet.

Or  Food intolerance means when an individual has difficulty in digesting a particular food. It is more common than food allergy. It can be tolerated a reasonable amount of food. Food intolerance comes on gradually not frequently. It is not life threatening.

Difficulty in digesting a particular food, leads to intestinal gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Food intolerance involves digestive system. Examples of food intolerance are lactose intolerance body cannot digest lactose (milk sugar) found in milk and its products, gluten intolerance (wheat), intolerance to caffeine, mushrooms, pickles, artificial colourings, flavourings, preservatives etc.

Symptoms generally take longer to emerge. Onset occurs after several hours and can persist for several hours or days, at times even 48 hours to appear. Symptoms may also include bloating, migraines, headaches, stomach ache, irritable bowel etc.

Food intolerance is different from food allergy :

Food intolerance

Food allergy

• Food intolerancedoes not trigger the immune system.

• Food allergies trigger the immune system   

• The symptoms of food intolerance generally take longer to emerge.

• The symptoms of food allergiesoften appear early.

• Food intolerance can cause digestive problems.

• It directly attacks blood and liver first.

• It is caused by dairy products, grains containing gluten, and foods that cause intestinal gas build-up.

• It can be caused by sea food, mushrooms and contaminated water.

• It can cause symptoms such as stomach-ache, bloating, nausea, irritable bowel, hives, migraine, mild fever, cough,etc.

• It causes skin rashes, swelling, vision blurriness, speaking issue etc.

 Some types of food intolerance are given below :

  1. Absence of an enzyme : Enzymes are essential for digesting food, and a lack of them can lead to food intolerance. This is caused by a deficiency of lactase enzyme in the body, which breaks down milk sugar into smaller molecules and absorbs through the intestine. If lactose remains in the digestive tract, it can cause stomach-ache, spasms, bloating, gas and diarrhoea.
  2. Chemical causes of food intolerance : Chemical causes of food intolerance include amines in cheeses, caffeine in coffee, tea, and chocolates, and some people are more susceptible than others.
  3. Toxins due to Food poisoning : Food poisoning can be caused by naturally-occurring chemicals, such as aflatoxins, which can cause diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting.
  4. Salicylates : Salicylates are derivatives of salicylic acid, which occurs naturally in plants as a defence mechanism against harmful bacteria, fungi, insects, and diseases. They are present in most plant-sourced foods, such as fruits and vegetables, spices, herbs, tea, and flavour additives. Salicylate intolerance, also known as salicylate sensitivity, occurs when somebody reacts to normal amounts of ingested salicylates. Saligylate intolerant individuals should avoid foods that contain high levels, and processed foods with flavour additives should be avoided.
  5. Gluten intolerance : Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley and rye, which can cause digestive problems such as gas, abdominal pain or diarrhoea. It is sometimes confused with Celiac disease or thought of as a food allergy. Anyone who suspects they may have a gluten intolerance should see a doctor before giving up gluten, as cereals can be an important source of nutrients.
  6. Food additives and intolerance : Additives are used to enhance flavours, make foods look more appealing, and increase shelf life, but they can lead to food additive intolerance. Nitrates and nitrites are known to cause itching and skin rashes, MSG is used as a flavour enhancer, and colourings such as carmine and annatto can cause food intolerance.

The best current treatment for food intolerance :

  • The best diagnostic tool for food intolerance is an exclusion diet, also known as an elimination or diagnostic diet.
  • Exclusion diets are used to isolate the causative foods and remove them from the diet for 2 weeks to 2 months.
  • If adverse reactions do not appear, the cause has been recognized and the best treatment is to avoid certain foods or eat them less often and in smaller amounts.

Food myths mean a legendary story about food with or without a determinable basic of fact or a natural explanation. What to eat, when to eat, and how often to eat are such questions which usually confuse.

  • Food myths are unscientific unfounded practices followed by people regarding food items.
  • They are more psychological in nature than actual.
  • Wrong information regarding nutrition without any logic, that we start following creates food myth.

Some food myths are as follows :

  • Potatoes make you fat
  • Drinking water in between your meals will mess up your digestion
  • Fat free products will help you in losing weight
  • Egg increases cholesterol levels
  • The peel of fruits and vegetables contains no nutrients
  • Having milk immediately after eating fish
  • Starve yourself if you want to lose weight
  • Eating ghee after pregnancy
  • Exercise makes you to eat more
  • It’s necessary to have carbohydrate-load before races
  • All sports drinks are the same
  • Supplement are necessary for maximum performance
  • Eggs cause heart problems.
  • Weight gain is caused by unprocessed food.
  • Food carvings are driven by deficiency.
  • Spicy food cause ulcer.
  • Eat less if you have fever.
  1. The fewer the carbohydrates, healthier you are : Choosing whole grains, which is good source of carbohydrates, is important for health and well-being, with reduced risk of chronic diseases and premature mortality.
  2. Oils/Margarine have fewer calories than Ghee/butter : Ghee/Butter and Oils/Margarine have about the same amount of calories, but margarines are unhealthier due to their trans-fats, which have adverse effects on cholesterol and heart health.
  3. Apples and brinjals are rich in iron because they turn brown when cut : Apples and brinjals are not rich in iron, as they turn brown when cut due to an enzymatic reaction. They are an excellent source of fibre but not of iron.
  4. Milk should be avoided after eating fish : Drinking milk after fish does not cause skin disease, contrary to popular belief.
  5. Drinking water in between meals affects digestion : Drinking water during meals does not affect the capacity to digest food, instead it fills the stomach and encourages people to eat less, especially when trying to lose weight.


5.5   Importance of Diet in Sports and Pre, During And Post Requirement

  1. Nutrition is essential for sports persons to recover from training and post-training recovery.
  2. Nutrient composition of diet and training can help achieve body composition goals for different games.
  3. Nutritional composition in pre-competition and post-competition meals can help improve performance, delay fatigue and speed recovery.
  4. Knowledge of nutrition is essential for successful fitness, weight loss and weight gain programmes in athletes. During offseason or no practice period, diet should be tailored to maintain body composition and prevent excessive weight gain.
  5. Nutrients such as ergogenic aids can help sportspersons improve their performance through their potential and psychological and physiological effects.
  6. Dehydration can impair athletic performance, so it is important to ensure adequate hydration before, during and after exercise.
  7. Adequate diet enhances physiological adaptations during training.

Suggest two reasons, why our body requires food-supplements :

       (i)  To balance the lack of proper nutrition in our diet.

      (ii)  Desired intake of vitamins and minerals.

     (iii)  Helps in proper growth and development.

     (iv)  To overcome deficiency diseases.

      (v)  Regulate important functions of cardio-vascular, nervous, endocrine and digestive systems.


Pre event :

  • Before competition, complex carbohydrates should be taken and consuming simple sugars prior to exercise should be discouraged as it may increase insulin levels and lead to hypoglycaemia.
  • Excessive intake of highly concentrated sugars can also lead to cramps and bloating.
  • Simple carbohydrate foods are the best sources of energy replacement after strenuous exercises, while complex carbohydrate foods are preferred as pre-exercise carbohydrate sources.

During competition :

  • Carbohydrates are essential for athletes to engage in strength-sports (wrestling, boxing, judo) and endurance sports (running, swimming, football, hockey and other similar types of sports).
  • The total amount of carbohydrates in the diet, as well as the type and time of carbohydrate intake, are also important for effective exercise performance. Prior to, during and post exercise can also be beneficial.

After/Post competition :

  • Carbohydrates are essential for muscle and liver glycogen to be stored, and pre-exercise meals should be consumed 4-6 hours before exercise.
  • A light carbohydrate and protein snack 30-60 min before exercise serves to increase carbohydrate availability and amino acids, while avoiding exercise-induced breakdown of protein.
  • Increased protein intake is recommended for sports persons due to increased muscle bulk and breakdown of muscle tissues during exercise and training.
  • ICMR (1985) recommends 12-14% of total caloric intake and range of protein intake from 1g/kg body weight to 2 g/kg, with lower limit for endurance sports and light weight category and upper limit for strength sports.
  • Eating sufficient calories from a well-balanced diet provides adequate proteins, but sources of good quality protein should be incorporated.
  • Low fat protein sources like skim milk, egg white, fish, and chicken are more beneficial for performance and long-term health.
  • Cereal pulse combination or supplements with complete protein also improves the quality of protein.
  • Protein and amino acid supplementation is becoming increasingly popular in athletes, but additional supplementation is not necessary as long as athletes maintain energy balance and take 15% of their total caloric intake in the form of proteins.
  • Protein intake in excess of 2g/kg BW can increase the risk of renal degeneration, bone porosity, and urinary calcium loss, particularly in women athletes.
  • When protein intake is increased, urea production increases and more water is drawn in urine, putting athletes into a dehydrated state.
  • Fat intake in athletes contributes to energy density and offers other protective roles, but higher than recommended could pose health problems.
  • To limit fat intake, athletes should restrict it to 25-30% of total calories.
  • A diet that includes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids has advantages over a diet rich in saturated fatty acids in terms of improving total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels.
  • Invisible fat sources should also be chosen wisely, such as egg whites, fish and skimmed milk in place of high fat animal foods.
  • Vitamins and minerals are essential for athletes and non-athletes alike, but athletes require higher amounts of B-vitamins and vitamins with anti-oxidant properties.
  • Taking more than required vitamins and minerals does not improve performance, so the key is to eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods in amounts that will maintain energy balance.
  • Fruits and vegetables are particularly rich in vitamins and antioxidants, and supplements are not replacements for food.

In pre-exercise meal our main considerations should be as follows :

  1. A meal of high-carbohydrate, moderate protein, low fibre and low-fat foods with 500-1000 kcal should be consumed before an event. Examples include banana milk shake, pasta and fruits, and potato sandwich with fruit juice.
  2. High sugar foods must be avoided to prevent insulin rush that results in early fatigue, cramping, dehydration, nausea and diarrhoea.
  3. On regular training days, instead of large meals, small meals or a snack every 2-3 hours should be taken.
  4. Meals should be taken about 2-4 hours before exercise.
  5. If eating within two hours of exercise eat less and take semi-solid or liquid meals.
  6. Dinner on the previous night of the competition is also important. The meal should be such that it ensures proper sleep and adequate fuelling up.
  7. Familiar and easily digestible foods should be consumed, while newer foods should be avoided.
  8. Foods heavy on stomach like fried foods or high fibre foods should be avoided on the day prior to competition.
  9. Too much of protein intake should also be avoided as it increases water excretion leading to a state of dehydration. Moreover, proteins are digested slower.
  10. Take sufficient liquids or a small snack an hour (or less) before exercise.

Some considerations of fluid intake pre competition that affects the sportsperson’s performance :

  • Hydration is essential for athletes to maintain optimal hydration status and reduce fatigue.
  • Water intake should be at a level of 150-250 ml every 15 minutes, and cups of sugar levels up to 2% should be taken.
  • Signs of dehydration include dark urine, decreased urine, reduced urination, rapid heart rate, headache, irritability, and confusion.
  • In weight categories, athletes may dehydrate themselves to reduce weight, which may affect their performance.

Discuss about meal intake guidelines for pre, during and post sports event :

Pre Sports Events : The athlete should stock up on the glycogen store by eating foods rich in complex carbohydrates. Less content of fat, protein and fibre. Food should include cereals, whole grain, pasta, fruits and vegetables.

During Sports Events : Athlete should stay hydrated and prevent onset of fatigue. Fluid intake should be continued in small sips. If the duration lasts for more than an hour the athlete should take small amount of carbohydrates at regular intervals, energy drinks can be taken to supply energy. If the duration is shorter than an hour, than the athlete should drink water frequently every ten to twenty minutes.

Post Sports Events : To store lost energy, carbohydrate rich food should be taken within an hour after the activity. Plenty of water, fruits, juices and sports drinks to replace loss fluid. Two hours after the event, Full meal that is high in carbohydrate content such as potatoes, cereals, vegetables, fruits, meat and soyabean to be taken.

Write briefly about some considerations of fluid intake pre, during and post competition that affects the sportsperson’s performance :

Pre competition : Liquid food can be digested much quicker and absorbed faster.

e.g., Fluids like milkshakes, yogurt/curd, vegetable soups etc.

During competition :

  • Energy drinks help maintain blood volume, regulate body temperature, allow muscle contraction.
  • Water helps in replacing fluids lost in sweat.
  • Fluids help in maintaining muscle glycogen and blood sugar level.

Post competition :

  • Protein drinks, Yogurt, fruit juices and water.
  • Helps in preparing worn out tissues.
  • Restoring fluids and electrolytes lost in sweat.
  • Help in refueling the muscle and liver glycogen.     (any 1 point for each)

Explain pre-, during and post-game responsibilities of officials of various committees for organising a sports tournament smoothly :




Organising committee

Finance committee

Publicity committee

Technical committee

Purchase committee

Reception committee

Transport committee

Boarding and lodging committee

Medical committee

Tournament committee

Awards and Ceremonial committee

Refreshment committee


Committee to intain report and other

Effect of diet on sports performance :

Pre event : Solid to be taken four hours before the competition. Protein can be avoided before the competition. Carbohydrates help in maintaining the blood glucose level. Always avoid rich fat and protein in the diet, because they slow down the digestion.

During competition : Carbohydrates can be easily digested and can provide energy in a short period of time. Marathon/Endurance runners while running generally consume a high carbohydrate containing gel.

After/Post competition : Post competition meals provides fast recovery. Carbohydrates are consumed to restore glycogen. Concentrate of meal on carbohydrate at least 100-200 gms. Consuming protein with carbohydrates post exercise will help in building, maintaining and repairing tissues.

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