Course Content
Unit I-Management of Sporting Events
Management of Sporting Events ● Functions of Sports Events Management (Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing & Controlling) ● Various Committees & their Responsibilities (pre; during & post) ● Fixtures and its Procedures – Knock-Out (Bye & Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic)
Unit II-Children & Women in Sports
● Common Postural Deformities - Knock Knee; Bow Legs; Flat Foot; Round Shoulders; Lordosis, Kyphosis, and Scoliosis and their corrective measures ● Special consideration (Menarche & Menstrual Dysfunction) ● Female Athletes Triad (Osteoporosis, Amenorrhea, Eating Disorders)
Unit III-Yoga as Preventive measure for Lifestyle Disease
 Obesity: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Tadasana, Katichakrasana, Pavanmuktasana, Matsayasana, Halasana, Pachimottansana, Ardha – Matsyendrasana, Dhanurasana, Ushtrasana, Suryabedhan pranayama.  Diabetes: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Katichakrasana, Pavanmuktasana,Bhujangasana, Shalabhasana, Dhanurasana, Supta-vajarasana, Paschimottanasana, Ardha-Mastendrasana, Mandukasana, Gomukasana, Yogmudra, Ushtrasana, Kapalabhati.  Asthma: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Tadasana, Urdhwahastottansana, UttanMandukasana, Bhujangasana, Dhanurasana, Ushtrasana, Vakrasana, Kapalbhati, Gomukhasana Matsyaasana, Anuloma-Viloma.  Hypertension: Procedure, Benefits & Contraindications for Tadasana, Katichakransan, Uttanpadasana, Ardha Halasana, Sarala Matyasana, Gomukhasana, UttanMandukasana, Vakrasana, Bhujangasana, Makarasana, Shavasana, Nadishodhanapranayam, Sitlipranayam.
Unit IV-Physical Education & Sports for CWSN (Children with Special Needs – Divyang)
● Organizations promoting Disability Sports (Special Olympics; Paralympics; Deaflympics) ● Advantages of Physical Activities for children with special needs. ● Strategies to make Physical Activities assessable for children with special needs.
Unit V-Sports & Nutrition
● Concept of balance diet and nutrition ● Macro and Micro Nutrients: Food sources & functions ● Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components of Diet
Unit VI-Test & Measurement in Sports
● Fitness Test – SAI Khelo India Fitness Test in school: o Age group 5-8 yrs/ class 1-3: BMI, Flamingo Balance Test, Plate Tapping Test o Age group 9-18yrs/ class 4-12: BMI, 50mt Speed test, 600mt Run/Walk, Sit & Reach flexibility test, Strength Test (Abdominal Partial Curl Up, Push-Ups for boys, Modified Push-Ups for girls). ● Computing Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) ● Rikli & Jones - Senior Citizen Fitness Test I. Chair Stand Test for lower body strength II. Arm Curl Test for upper body strength III. Chair Sit & Reach Test for lower body flexibility IV. Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility V. Eight Foot Up & Go Test for agility VI. Six Minute Walk Test for Aerobic Endurance
Unit VII-Physiology & Injuries in Sports
● Physiological factors determining components of physical fitness ● Effect of exercise on Muscular System ● Effect of exercise on Cardio-Respiratory System ● Sports injuries: Classification (Soft Tissue Injuries -Abrasion, Contusion, Laceration, Incision, Sprain & Strain; Bone & Joint Injuries - Dislocation, Fractures - Green Stick, Comminuted, Transverse Oblique & Impacted)
Unit VIII-Biomechanics & Sports
● Newton’s Law of Motion & its application in sports ● Equilibrium – Dynamic & Static and Centre of Gravity and its application in sports ● Friction & Sports ● Projectile in Sports
Unit IX-Psychology & Sports
● Personality; its definition & types (Jung Classification & Big Five Theory) ● Meaning, Concept & Types of Aggressions in Sports ● Psychological Attributes in Sports – Self Esteem, Mental Imagery, Self Talk, Goal Setting
Unit X-Training in Sports
● Concept of Talent Identification and Talent Development in Sports ● Introduction to Sports Training Cycle – Micro, Meso, Macro Cycle. ● Types & Method to Develop – Strength, Endurance and Speed ● Types & Method to Develop – Flexibility and Coordinative Ability
CBSE Physical Education Class 12
About Lesson


Knowing our Heroes


•  Milkha Singh was born in 1929 in Gobindpura village in the Muzaffargarh district of Pakistan and spent most of his childhood in poverty.

•  During the 1947 partition, he became an orphan and moved to India.

•  He earned his living by working in a roadside restaurant before joining the army in 1951.

•  He practiced hard and came to the limelight during the National Games at Patiala in 1956, breaking the 200 m and 400 m records.

•  He achieved many medals during his sports career, including the gold medal in the 400 meters race at the Commonwealth Games and the Asian Games.

•  He also set a national record in the 1960 Olympics by winning fourth place in the 400 m race in 45.73 seconds.

•  He was persuaded by then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to run against Abdul Khaliq in Pakistan, whom he defeated.

•  He then received the title of “the Flying Sikh” by General Ayub.

•  He remained passionate about his fitness routine throughout his life, playing 18 holes of golf at the 7,202-yard-long Chandigarh Golf Course and running light sprints at Sukhna Lake.


10.1   Concept of Talent Identification and Talent Development in Sports

Talent identification is the process of encouraging children to participate in a sport based on selected parameters. These parameters are designed to predict performance capacity based on the child’s current level of fitness and maturity.

The figure along illustrates the various stages comprising the long-term talent identification system in sports and games

The first stage of the selection process should be between the ages of 10 and 12, using essential fields tests that are easy to administer. Those who seem talented should be encouraged to participate in general training in schools and clubs.

The second phase of the selection procedure could occur between 13 and 16. The tests should be conducted in schools and be easy to administer. The test battery should include background information, training history, competition results, anthropometric measurements, and psychological and physiological tests. Those selected at this stage would then undergo more sophisticated tests, administered by specialists in the area or state centres.

Finally,The most important details in this text are that those selected should be allocated to elite junior programmes on an eventgroup basis, those who show promising results in the second-stage tests should be encouraged to participate in club training programmes, and all tested youths should participate in recreational sports. Tests should be adapted to local conditions, but standardized across the whole country to promote the youth competition structure in developing countries.

Process of Talent Identification and Development is classified into five stages as follows:

  1. Talent Detection : This is the discovery of potential performers who are not currently involved in the sport in question.
  2. Talent Identification : Recognizing participants with the potential at an earlier age to become elite performers in the future.
  3. Talent Development : Provides athletes with a suitable learning environment to accelerate or realize their potential
  4. Talent Selection : The ongoing process of identifying individuals at various stages of development who demonstrate pre-requisite performance levels.
  5. Talent Transfer : Focuses on transfer from one sport to another sport where there are more significant opportunities to succeed

Importance of Talent Identification :

  • Discovery of the great talent
  • Recognition of the hidden talent
  • By recognizing the talent at the early stage, the children can show their skills at their extreme
  • Talent identification helps in finding a significant asset for the country

Components of Talent Identification :

The main components of Talent Identification (TID) can be divided into the following categories:

  • Physiological attributes
  • Physical attributes
  • Psychological attributes
  • Technical/Tactical attributes
  • Results
  • Intangibles


10.2   Introduction to Sports Training Cycle : Micro, Meso, Macro Cycle

Sports Training : Process of preparation, in sports person to achieve a desired goal is called sports training.

A technical and systematic process of training a sports person, to achieve the utmost level of performance is called sports training.

Sectional plans are used in sports training to plan for different periods of the training year, such as preparatory, competition, transitional, and training cycles, these cycles are known as sport training cycles

Various training cycles are known as microcycle, mesocycle, and macrocycle, are all sectional plans.

The three cycles of training are :

(a) Micro Cycle : The micro cycle is the shortest cycle of training, lasting 3 to 10 days for intermediate and high performance sports persons.

The last day of the micro cycle provides active recovery and relaxation to prepare the sportsperson for the next micro cycle.

The three proportions of high and medium or low load are adopted in the micro cycle are :

  • 1:1, i.e., every day of the high load is followed by a day of medium load.
  • 2:1, i.e., every two days of high load are followed by a day of medium load
  • 3:1, i.e., every three days of high load are followed by a medium or low load day

(b) Meso Cycle : The duration of this training cycle is 3-6 weeks, with the purpose of tackling specific training tasks. These tasks are:

  • Learning and acquiring mastery of skills
  • Maintenance and stabilization of performance
  • Development of physical and motor fitness components
  • Preparation for a specific competition
  • Attainment of optimal level of performance
  • Preparation for the next meso cycle by providing recovery and relaxation.

A meso cycle of 4 weeks is the best, as it is the minimum period for significant change in physiological and psychological factors. The last week of the training meso cycle is a transitional phase to ensure recovery and relaxation.

(c)  Macro Cycle : The macro cycle is the most extended cycle of training and is used to improve the performance capacity of a sportsperson. It consists of several meso cycles, with the last meso cycle providing recovery and realization for a smooth transition to the next macro cycle. The duration of this cycle is 3 to 12 months.


10.3   Strength

Ability of the muscles to overcome the resistance/Capacity of the body to exert force/Force that muscle can exert against resistance.

Strength is the capacity of the whole body or parts of to exert force.

  • Strength is an important motor component of fitness and plays a significant role in sporting events.
  • It is a conditional ability that depends on the energy liberation process in the muscles and the amount of force muscles can produce to complete a task.


  • Static strength is also called isometric strength
  • Static strength is the ability of muscles to act against resistance, measured with a dynamometer.
  • It is not usually used in sports, but is used in phases in weightlifting.

Examples :

  1. Plank or yoga asanas.
  2. Pushing against the sturdy wall, we will not be able to move it from its place. So, we should not consider it as work. Our muscle exert force, while pushing wall, but we see that work is not done.


  • Dynamic strength is also known as isotonic strength, and is required for pull-ups and push-ups.
  • It is recognized by rhythmic muscular contractions with changes in muscle length, using a relatively small force.
  • When performing such a workout, there is a diminishing tendency in dynamic strength, and muscles refuse to do work after some time.
  • Movements are visible when someone uses dynamic strength.
  • The lengthening and shortening of muscle can be called eccentric contraction and concentric contraction accordingly.

Example :

  1. Push up and full squats.
  2. Calisthenic exercises, running and jumping on the spot, lifting of weights or exercise with medicine ball. These exercise can be done with or without equipment.

Dynamic strength can be divided into three parts :

(aMaximum Strength

  • Maximum strength is the ability to overcome the resistance of maximum stimulus intensity in a single muscular contraction.
  • It is essential for many sports, such as long jump, shot put, javelin throw, weightlifting, discus throw, etc.
  • These events require the tacking of heavy resistance.

(bExplosive Strength

  • Explosive strength is a combination of strength and speed used in motor movements and is a form of dynamic strength.
  • It is mainly used in volleyball spiking, jumps in basketball, sprint events, and is influenced by motor coordination that is inter and intramuscular coordination.

(cStrength Endurance

  • Strengths endurance is a product of two motor abilities: strength and endurance.
  • Strength endurance is the ability to withstand resistance from a medium-intensity stimulus for a long time, usually in long-distance races such as athletics, swimming, and distance cycling.



Strength is the capacity of the whole body or parts of to exert force. There are two types of strength–Dynamic and Static strength. Following methods are used to improve strength :

(1)  Isometric Exercise : Means where we do these exercises work is done cannot be observed. In these exercises, work is performed but it is not seen directly. In these exercises a group of muscles carry out tension against the other group of muscles. For example : Pushing against the sturdy wall, we will not be able to move it from its place. So, we should not consider it as work. Our muscle exert force, while pushing wall, but we see that work is not done.

When we do exercise expenditure of energy is usual phenomenon. Some time body temperature may increase while performing these exercises. Muscles may feel a slight tremor if exercise is done for a prolonged time. Regular performing these exercises muscle size and shape can be changed.

(2)  Isotonic Exercise : Isotonic exercises are those exercises in which movement can be seen directly. Work is done in these exercises. The lengthening and shortening of muscle can be called eccentric contraction and concentric contraction accordingly.

Examples : Calisthenic exercises, running and jumping on the spot, lifting of weights or exercise with medicine ball. These exercise can be done with or without equipment.

(3)  Iso-kinetic Exercise : In Iso-kinetic exercise contraction of muscle apply maximum forces throughout the complete range of movements. According to individual’s capacity, the speed of contraction can be adjusted. The Iso-kinetic excise can be used effectively for the development of strength.

Differences between isotonic and isometric exercises :

Dynamic Strength
(Isotonic Strength)

Static Strength
(Isometric Strength)

1. In these exercises, work is done and can be seen directly.

1. In these exercises work is done cannot be observed.

2. These exercise can be done with or without equipment.

2. These exercise cannot be done without equipment.

3. Muscles refuse to work after a these exercise, leading to muscle fatigue.

3. Muscles may feel a slight tremor if exercise is done for a prolonged time.

4. Example: push up and full squats.

4. Example: plank or yoga asanas.

Differences between iso-kinetic and iso-metric exercises :

Iso-metric Exercise

Iso-kinetic Exercise

1. In these exercises work is done cannot be observed.

1. In these exercises, work is done and can be seen directly.

2. These exercise cannot be done without equipment.

2. These exercises are performed on specially designed instruments.

3. There is no change in the muscle length when such exercises are done.

3. In Iso-kinetic exercise contraction of muscle apply maximum forces throughout the complete range of movements.

4. Example: plank or yoga asanas.

4. Example: sporting events like rowing and swimming

Preventive Measures in Strength Training : While doing strength training, appropriate supervision is a must as there is always a high risk of injury accompanying it. Therefore, it is essential to know the means for preventing such incidents. These are:

  1. Strength training must be done after proper warming up.
  2. Strong and stable joints are essential for strength training, so it is important to do general strength training with low intensity.
  3. Exercising with heavyweights requires correct technique to avoid serious injuries.
  4. Strength training exercises must be done correctly, preferably agonists and antagonists’ muscles.
  5. The load must be increased gradually as per the athlete’s ability and requirement.
  6. Recovery or rest is essential for strength training, as it helps prevent injuries.
  7. Improper breathing while exercising with heavy weights can lead to serious disturbance in blood circulation, so it is important to breathe continuously and hold it for a minimum duration.
  8. Safety equipment like belts, boots, wrist bands, etc., should be used when necessary.
  9. Children should not be allowed to carry heavy loads until the age of 16 due to the risk of injury.


10.4   Endurance

The ability to sustain a physical activity over longer period of time resisting fatigue is called endurance.

Or Endurance is the ability of an individual to continue the activity for a considerable period of time with a great degree of efficiency.

Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue.

(a) Endurance according to nature of activity

  • Basic endurance : Basic endurance is the ability to resist fatigue in which the load is of medium intensity and involves aerobic muscular metabolism. It involves moving a large number of muscles at a slow pace for a prolonged period, such as jogging, cycling, and swimming for more than 30 minutes. It is the base for all other types of endurance.
  • General endurance : General Endurance is the ability to do sporting movements for a prolonged duration that are general. It is not specific to any sport and can be developed by performing general exercises. Unlike essential endurance, general endurance activities may incorporate high-intensity practices, but the duration is shorter than essential endurance.
  • Specific endurance : Specific Endurance is the ability to perform movements of a particular sport to resist fatigue. It varies from activity to activity as the need for the activity is different. For example, the specific endurance of a hockey player is different from that of a marathon runner or a cyclist as the need for the activity is different.

(b) Endurance according to duration of activity

  • Speed endurance : Speed Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue in cyclic activities that last up to 45 seconds, such as a 400 m sprint. It is dependent on the power and capacity to produce energy.        
  • Short term endurance : Short Term endurance is needed for activities lasting 45 seconds to 2 minutes, and depends on speed endurance and strength endurance. For example short term endurance is an 800 m run.
  • Medium term endurance : Medium time endurance is needed to resist fatigue in activities lasting from 2 minutes to 11 minutes, such as 1500 m and 3000 m run and 100 m rowing. It depends on speed and strength endurance, but to a limited extent.
  • Long term endurance : Long Time Endurance is needed for activities that last for more than 11 minutes, such as marathons, cross country, etc.


10.4.1  METHODS TO DEVELOP ENDURANCE  Continuous Method :

Continuous Method is a method of exercise that is long and continuous without rest, resulting in low training intensity.

This method has the following subcategories :

(a)  Slow Continuous Method : The Slow Continuous Method is a method of exercise that requires a trained athlete’s heart rate to be between 140-160 beats per minute and a duration of less than 30 minutes. It is used for walking, running, cycling, etc.

Effects of the slow continuous method are :

  1. Increased muscle glycogen.
  2. Increased liver glycogen.
  3. Increased capillarization.
  4. Increased number and size of mitochondria.
  5. Improved thermal regulation.
  6. Quality of oxidative enzymes improves.
  7. Increased fat metabolism.
  8. Positive effect on heart and lungs.
  9. Psychological changes such as improved willpower, self-discipline, and self-conquest.

(b)  Fast Continuous Method : The activity is uniform but fast, with a heart rate of between 160-180 beats per minute, and a duration of at least 20 minutes.

Effects of the fast continuous method are :

  1. Effective for improving VO2 max.
  2. Improved capacity of muscles to consume oxygen
  3. Significant increase in the size and number of mitochondria.
  4. Improved anaerobic capacity

(c)  Variable Pace Method : The Variable Pace Method is a strenuous exercise performed at a changing pace. The heart rate usually ranges between 140-180 beats per minute and the duration may range from 15 minutes to 1 hour. It should be done by trained athletes.

Effect of variable pace method are :

  1. Increases glycogen in the muscles
  2. Increases the number and size of mitochondria
  3. Increases efficiency of heart and lungs
  4. Improves willpower and confidence
  5. Improve VO2 Max

(d)  Fartlek Method : Fartlek is Swedish word which means ’speed play’. It is variation of variable pace running .This method is based on cross country running with varying speed according to the dictates of terrain and the requirement of athlete. Along with running, some exercises may also be included in this type of training .It is usually conducted over a hilly region. It may also be conducted in ploughed fields or sand beds. The trainer only fixes the duration of completion of running. The athlete has a freedom to run at an easy pace, change the pace while uphill and downhill running and sprinting in between. Squat jumps, hopping with one or both legs can also be included.

Example :

  • Jogging, slow running–5 to 10 minutes
  • Steady, hard running–1.5 to 2.5/km
  • Rapid walking–5 minutes
  • Sprints for about 50 to 60 mts
  • Full speed up hill running for 175 to 200 mts
  • Free running/easy running
  • Fast pace/minute

Effect of fartlek method are :

  1. Promotes weight loss
  2. It’s an excellent test for strength and endurance
  3. It improves speed and race tactics
  4. It improves the mind over matter game
  5. It is excellent for getting into the racing mindset as a fartlek session mimics the surges of speed you may put on in a race.
  6. Incorporating these speed surges helps runners measure and learn how much they can push their bodies over shorter segments.
  7. Increases physical and mental energy
  8. Improves flexibility
  9. Improves Fast and Slow Twitch Muscle Response

Endurance can be developed through fartlek method are as follows :

  1. Endurance develops through continuous and interval training; fartlek combines both training.
  2. Endurance develops according to duration of activity; fartlek can vary from aerobic walking to anaerobic sprinting.
  3. Endurance develops according to nature of activity; fartlek can change it according to the surrounding.
  4. Endurance develops under the condition of fatigue; self discipline plays a vital role in Fartlek training method.
  5. Fartlek training keeps the heart rate up allowing an athlete to get good cardio-vascular endurance.
  6. Due to the sprinting interval, it makes the body versatile.
  7. It is not rigid but flexible in nature.

Advantages and Disadvaanatages of fartlek training method:

      Advantages :

  • Develops strength and endurance.
  • Appropriate form of training for most sports.
  • Can be adjusted to suit age, fitness and health of the athlete.
  • Exercises are simple enough to make each athlete feel a sense of achievement in completing them.
  • A wide range of exercises to select from which will maintain the athlete’s enthusiasm.
  • Can be done in the group.

      Disadvantages :

  • Many exercising require specialised equipment, e.g., gym equipment.
  • Ample space required to set up the circuit exercises and equipment.
  • In general can only be conducted where appropriate facilities/equipment are available.
  • Use of addition equipment requires appropriate health and safety monitoring.  Interval Method :

This method is based on the principle of effort, recovery and effort again. In this method the recovery period is called interval. This interval period help an athlete to recover from increased respiratory rate. Blood pressure and accumulation of waste product such as load can be decided according to the capability of athlete. Many variables can be considered like–increase distance, decrease time, increase number of repetition and decrease recovery time. Accordingly, there may be a need to change speed, repetitions and recovery period. Care should also be taken while increase in the load gradually. Decrease the load if the athlete feels difficulty in performing.

A micro cycle (weekly schedule) should be prepared and can be altered. This training is important for the athlete, especially engaged in endurance development as it helps in proper cardio vascular adjustments.

Following examples are applicable in his training :

  1.  400 m race with 80% speed.
  2.  Walking or jogging until his heart rate comes down to 120 to 140 approximately.
  3.  400 m race with 80% speed. (repetition)

The most important effects of this method :

  1. Improved circulatory system
  2. Improved aerobic capacity
  3. Improved lactic acid tolerance
  4. Improved VO2 max  Repetition Method :

The repetition method is characterized by a high intensity that ranges from 90-to 100% of work with an interval of complete recovery. It is the best method to develop speed endurance.

The Essential effects of this method are :

  1. Improved anaerobic capacity
  2. Improved lactic acid tolerance
  3. Improved phosphagen stores

Important Definitions :

Volume : Training volume is the amount of training done, including duration, time, distance covered volume load, number of repetitions, and performed work in a given time. It is a quantitative component of work.

Intensity : Training intensity refers to the effort by which a training session is completed. It is a qualitative component of work and varies from sport to sport. Speed is assessed by metres per second, resistance by kilogram, and heart rate by heart rate.

Density : Training density is the volume of training completed within a given time frame. It is determined by volume and intensity, with the more dense a session, the more intense it can be.


10.5   Speed

Speed is the ability of an individual to cover a distance or perform a movement in a minimum time.



From a general point of view, there are five different types of speed that are discussed briefly as follows :

  1. Reaction Ability : Reaction ability is the ability to react quickly to a stimulus or signal, which depends on the coordinative abilities of an individual. It can be divided into simple and complex reaction abilities.Different games and sports have other signs like visual, auditory and tactile.
  2. Acceleration Ability : Acceleration ability is the ability to achieve a high locomotion speed from a stationary position, depending on explosive strength, technique, and movement frequency. It is essential for almost every game and sport and greatly influences sprinting events.
  3. Movement Speed : Movement speed is the ability to perform a single movement in the minimum possible time in acyclic and cyclic sports. It is dependent on technique and explosive strength.
  4. Locomotor Ability : Locomotor ability is the ability to maintain maximum speed when in motion for the maximum possible duration or distance. It is essential in sports like 100m and 200m sprints, speed skating, and short sprints in cycling. It depends on the mobility of the nervous system and the chances of improving locomotor ability are low.
  5. Speed Endurance : Speed endurance is the ability to move with high speed for a longer duration under fatigue, depending on anaerobic capacity, technique, and psychic factors.


  1. Acceleration runs : Acceleration is the rate of change of speed of an object. It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from a stationary position in the short time.
  • Acceleration takes place in the first 50-60 meters. Training to improve the acceleration such as repeated sprints of 50 meters with full rest period or recovery.
  • Accelerate quickly and powerfully is a technique required in most of the sports.
  • For example an athlete is required to run as fast as possible. This ability is very important in many sports such as sprints, swimming sprints, basketball, hockey, football etc.
  • Consider the following points to improve acceleration speed – Stride Length, Ground Contact Time, Velocity, Stride Frequency and Heel Recovery.
  1. Pace races : The pace is the speed at which an athlete runs. Developing a better sense of pace will help athlete conserve energy while running. Working on pace can help to achieve running goal. If an athlete starts running too fast and then slows down he won’t get the same training benefit.

The athlete tries to run or swim each repetition at the same pace to achieve maximum benefit. It is considered a good pacing technique. Pace race strategy refers to running in pace which help to achieve optimum level performance.

Example : 800 m race.

Break the race into sections, which makes it easier to determine your pace.

Pace strategy for 800 m running, keeps the 4-6 second difference in first and second 400 m to achieve optimum level of performance.

To develop the speed endurance we will have to work more on pace races because pace races means running the whole distance at a constant speed.


10.6   Flexibility

The ability of an individual to move his or her joints through its complete range of motion.

Or Flexibility refers to the range of movement in a joint.

Importance of Flexibility :

  1. Greater range of motion ensures more force and speed developed by the muscles.
  2. It is due to the flexibility to perform movements with minimum muscular tension and, therefore, facilitates a higher movement economy.
  3. It reduces stiffness in joints.
  4. It reduces the risk of injuries as muscles are more pliable.
  5. It helps in maintaining appropriate posture while performing.



Flexibility is of the following two types :

  1. Passive flexibility : It is the ability to do movement with external support.
  • Passive flexibility is the ability to do movements with greater amplitude and with external help.
  • It is determined by the joint structure and stretchability of the muscles and ligaments, and is the base of operational flexibility.
  • For example stretching with the help of a partner.
  1. Active flexibility : It is the ability to do movement with greater amplitude without any external support.
  • Active flexibility is the ability to perform a movement with greater amplitude without external help, while passive flexibility is the lack of muscular strength or coordination.
  • For example, you are performing a stretching exercise by a sportsperson himself.

Active flexibility is further classified into the following two categories :

(a) Static Flexibility : it is required for movements done while the individual is in a static position. For example standing, sitting, or lying.

(b) Dynamic Flexibility : it is required for executing movements when an individual is moving.



The various methods that can help to improve flexibility are discussed below :

  1. Slow Stretching : Stretching the muscles around the joint is the most important way to improve flexibility, and should be slow and without jerky movements.
  2. Slow Stretch and Hold : The next stage after stretching is to hold for 6-8 seconds at the maximum stretching point, which is the most commonly used method in games and sports. Stretching can be done either statically or dynamically.
  • Static stretching involves slowly easing into extension and holding the position for a period depending on the purpose. If it improves flexibility, it should be held for
    30 seconds.
  • Dynamic stretching exercises require controlled movements of legs and hands, suitable for events requiring dynamic movement.
  1. Ballistic Method : The Ballistic Method is a form of stretching that uses the body’s momentum to extend the range of motion, but many experts believe it can lead to injury. It is done rhythmically and has come under the scanner by physical therapists.
  2. Proprioceptive Neuro-Muscular Facilitation (PNF) Technique : The post isometric stretch is based on the principle of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, which states that if a muscle is contracted for a few seconds, it gains maximum relaxation after the contraction. It is done by gradually stretching the muscle for 5-7 seconds and then holding it for 8-10 seconds. The process is repeated 4-8 times for each muscle group.

The essential tips for developing flexibility :

  1. The right age for flexibility development is before puberty.
  2. Stretching routine should be continued to improve flexibility.
  3. Stretching exercises should be done after warm-up to improve flexibility.
  4. Flexibility exercise should be performed correctly to prevent overstretching of muscles.
  5. Flexibility training should aim for optimum flexibility to reduce joint stability and injury risk.
  6. 10-15 repetitions are needed to improve flexibility for a muscle group to gain.
  7. Stretching should be accompanied by a conscious effort to relax the antagonist’s muscles.
  8. It is essential to avoid jerky movements while performing stretching exercises.
  9. Age has an inverse relationship with flexibility.
  10. Daily or twice a day exercises can help improve flexibility.


10.7   Coordinative Abilities

Coordinative abilities are those abilities which enable an individual to do various related activities accurately and efficiently. Coordinative abilities mainly depend on the central Nervous System.

Or  Zimmerman et al. stated that “Coordinative abilities are understood as relatively stabilized and generalized patterns of motor control and regulation processes. These enable the sportsman to do a group of movements with better quality and effect.”

  1. Orientation ability :
  • Orientation Ability is the ability to determine and change the position and movements of the body in a definite field of action and a moving object.
  • It is essential for sports such as gymnastics and team games, where vision is decisive.
  • Example : body movement and position in gymnastics are essential for orientation.Such as a volleyball court, skating rink, a football ground.
  1. Coupling ability :
  • Coupling Ability is the ability to coordinate body part movements with one another and create a goal-oriented body movement.
  • It is essential in sports such as gymnastics and team games, where foot movements for ball control or dribbling must be coupled with the wholebody action of running and jumping.
  • It depends on the functional capacity of kinaesthetic and visual sense organs.
  1. Reaction ability : Reaction ability is the ability to react quickly and effectively to a stimulus, such as visual, auditory, and tactile. It can be divided into simple and complex reaction abilities.  (a) Simple reaction ability; (b) Complex reaction ability
  2. Balance ability : Balance Ability is the ability to maintain equilibrium and regain balance quickly after disturbing balance movements. It is further classified into two types:
  • Kinaesthetic, tactic, and vestibular sense organs all play a role in maintaining balance during slow movements.
  • Vestibular sense organs are essential for maintaining balance in rapidly changing positions.
  1. Rhythm ability :
  • Rhythm ability is the ability to perceive the rhythm of a movement and do the exercise with the required rhythm.
  • It also refers to the ability to reproduce rhythm stored in motor memory, in motor action.
  • In some sports, such as gymnastics and figure skating, the sportsperson has to perceive an external rhythm and music and express it in their movements.
  • In other sports, rhythm is not given outside and the sportsperson must use the rhythm stored in their memory.
  1. Adaptation ability :
  • Adaptation Ability is the ability to adjust or completely change the movement programme based on changes and anticipated changes.
  • It depends on the speed and accuracy of perception of changes in the situation.
  1. Differentiation ability :
  • Differentiation ability is the ability to fine-tune movement phases and achieve a high level of accuracy.
  • It is determined by movement experience and mastery over motor action, and is used in sports in sensing or implementing movement.
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